Type II, infibulation: This includes all degrees of excision or damage beyond clitoridectomy
that includes other part/parts/or all of the external genitalia, followed by suturing or not.
The map of Africa showing the extent of the practice of FGM (Female genital mutilation) printed on the page preceding her own text, distinguishes clearly between the zones of Africa where clitoridectomy
is commonly practiced and the more limited areas of infibulations, by using different shades of grey.
This is a beautifully crafted story in which the theme of sex is approached through gendered difference between males and females and the practice of clitoridectomy
Browne, "Christian Missionaries, Western Feminists, and the Kikuyu Clitoridectomy
Controversy," in Brett Williams, ed.
This book describes women's experiences in debating the legal status of African women, their sexuality in culture and law as well as clitoridectomy
, ethnicity and womanhood.
One Christian missionary, an elderly woman, was murdered after having been subjected to a forced clitoridectomy
in reprisal for the missionaries' condemnation of the practice.
It used to be treated by clitoridectomy
with "very unsatisfactory results," he said, describing more conservative procedures in use today.
Then, too, Abdo's glowing depiction of "the Islamic revival" among Egypt's intelligentsia dimmed considerably when she confronted certain aspects of it, such as clitoridectomy
(which, she asserted, apparently on the authority of the Egyptian government, is performed on 97 percent of Egyptian girls).
Although Laqueur quotes this document twice, it makes no sense because he has not discussed the vast nineteenth century literature on the value of circumcision as a disincentive to masturbation in boys, and of clitoridectomy
to treat the problem in girls.
This duty is violated by practices, such as clitoridectomy
and child-beating, that inflict permanent harm on children or that jeopardize their development toward moral independence.
It consists of: (a) excision (the removal of all or part of the labia minora); (b) clitoridectomy
(the removal of all or part of the clitoris); and (c) infibulation (the cutting of the labia majora to create raw surfaces, which are then all stitched or held together in order to form a cover over the vagina when they heal.
Castration of women by clitoridectomy
was once prescribed by Western physicians as a treatment for excessive masturbation and as a religious ritual continues to this day for millions of African women.
But there are also disturbing facts ("In the United States, the last recorded clitoridectomy
for curing masturbation was performed in 1948--on a five-year-old girl") and haunting stories.
Women's reproduction is controlled through infibulation, while their sexual pleasure is curtailed through clitoridectomy
TIMES are tough for our nation's police farces, who have suffered more cuts than the entire out-patients department at the Mogadishu clitoridectomy
clinic in recent years.