of uniform shape and maturity were collected from Donghai Island, Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province, China.
ideally, we would find a white cladode
, dry and badly damaged, at the site where the plant was recorded the previous year.
(the cactus leaves or pads) are covered with stiff thorns, while the tuna has detachable microscopic hairs, called glochids, that can easily penetrate bare skin.
Late instar larvae of a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, feeding on A) an Opuntia cladode
and B) an artificial wax-covered diet cake.
Reproductive plants were arbitrarily defined as those [greater than or equal to]2 m in height for mesquite and with [greater than or equal to]20 cladodes
Once on a suitable host, the crawlers will fix to a cladode
and remain there for the rest of their lives.
cactorum eggsticks per cladode
, and proportion of cladodes
After cooling, the round diet cakes were removed from the Petri dishes and dipped into molten paraffin to provide a thin waxy coat simulating a wax-covered cactus cladode
(Marti et al.
with its eggstick was held within a vented plastic container with cat litter in the bottom to absorb plant and larval exudates during insect development.
Once firm it was cut into 4 x 6 cm blocks which were then dipped into beeswax to provide a thin waxy outer layer to simulate a cactus cladode
and help retain moisture within the food block.
All insects were held in 400 cc ventilated cardboard cages at 25[degrees]C, 14:10 D:N, and 70-80% RH, with a small piece of cactus cladode
and were unmated and <24 h old when placed on test.
For the inoculation of fungus in the greenhouse, 30 healthy nopal plants were selected, and in 1 cladode
per plant an orifice was made that was 20 cm long and 1 cm in diameter, similar to those made by the larvae in the field.
Diet squares were dipped into molten paraffin to provide a thin waxy coat simulating a wax-covered cactus cladode
Larvae feed gregariously inside the cladodes
of many species of Opuntia, often causing death of the plants (Starmer et al.
Jaramillo-Flores ME, Gonzalez-Cruz L, Cornejo-Mazon M, Dorantes-Alvarez L, Gutierrez-Lopez GF and H Hernandez-Sanchez Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Antioxidant Activity and Content of Carotenoids and Phenolic Compounds of Cactus Pear Cladodes