In the LMHSM, the presence of condensed matter and elevated chromospheric
densities, well-beyond the densities of the Earth's atmosphere, are entirely compatible with a condensed solar photosphere.
the anisotropy could result from the mirroring of the charged particles in the convergent chromospheric
magnetic fields" [195, p.
Thus, HeII emissions are seen at the greatest chromospheric
Abstract: In a classic 1972 paper, Andrew Skumanich showed that stellar rotation decreases over time--as does chromospheric
activity, a proxy for magnetic field strength.
However, given the appearance of chromospheric
structures, such as rosettes and mottles, and the somewhat random orientations of spicules [4-15], it seems unlikely that these objects can be of magnetic origin.
Papers from an October 2006 meeting present recent work on spectroheliograph equipment and observations, the structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere, active regions and sun spots, prominences and filaments, chromospheric
flares, long-term solar variations, and solar physics instrumentation.
Eighty contributions are organized into sections on photospheric magnetism, radiative transfer methods and inversion techniques, new solar polarimeters and techniques, atomic spectro- polarimetry, theory of collisional polarization, laboratory experiments and molecular spectro-polarimetry, stellar spectro- polarimetry, and chromospheric
But even this simple calculation, based on the characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere, points to significant problems with current estimates of chromospheric
densities, inferred from gaseous solar model  which it exceeds by a factor on the order of [10.
In the early days amateur solar observations were almost all made in white light, but the availability of affordable hydrogen-alpha filters has greatly increased observations of chromospheric
activity and has enabled amateurs to produce images which rival those of professional observatories (Figure 13).
But, many types are listed in the introduction so you have to plough through them all to see if the one you want is described (it is; they are rotating dwarfs of low amplitude with the light variations caused by spots, flares and chromospheric
In order to explain the continuous chromospheric
spectrum, theoretical approaches (e.
Papers are grouped in sections on instrumentation, convection and sunspots, magnetism of quiet sun and active regions, waves and shocks, chromospheric
heating, coronal heating, local helioseismology, emerging flux, reconnection, flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar wind.
He describes a "basal chromospheric
flux," which he attributes to "maybe acoustic heating," and which he subtracts from the total flux.
activity implied by the starspots make this a very likely X-ray source.
Such tremendous excesses of helium call for much lower chromospheric
helium abundances, but these are incompatible with levels required to account for helium in the solar winds .