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Related to chromosome: centrosome, gene, genome
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1998) reported that maize Bs accounted for approximately 4% of the total chromosome volume and an association exists between the number of Bs and the size of heterochromatic knobs, which can mask the contribution of Bs to total genome size.
Structural rearrangements of the Y chromosome are frequently associated with testicular dysfunction.
A normal chromosome is linear, with its ends protected, but with ring chromosomes, the two ends of the chromosome fuse together, forming a circle.
Some mammals have already lost their Y chromosome, though they still have males and females and reproduce normally.
Three-dimensional folding provides shortcuts through the chromosome
Ring chromosomes are divided into two groups: those in which one normal chromosomal homologue is replaced by a ring equivalent, and those in which the ring chromosome is additional to the two normal copies of that chromosome; such a ring is termed a supernumary.
B or supernumerary chromosomes are generally heterochromatic, fail to pair with the normal member of the complement (A chromosomes) during meiosis (unlike most chromosome mutations) and often show accumulation (i.
It is not know whether Bs in Lolium perenne drive, but several studies have shown that the more densely plants with B chromosome are planted, the better they survive.
Chromosome evolution has been a driving force in speciation in diverse groups of organisms (Stebbins, 1950; White, 1978; Grant, 1981; Coyne & Orr, 2004; Ayala & Coluzzi, 2005).
Previous cytogenetic studies on 27 species of Corixoidea have shown a noticeable karyotypic uniformity with a diploid chromosome number of 24, a pair of m chromosomes, and an XY/XX sex chromosome system (male/female) (Table I) (Ueshima, 1979; Ituarte & Papeschi, 2003, 2004).
According to Sykes, the problem started about 200 to 300 million years ago among mammals' ancestors, when mutations first provided the Y chromosome with genes that direct the embryo to develop into a male.
Vandiver later joined the staff of the MIT COEP and has worked with the program to design a learning activity for students based on the kits called "The Shape of Life: From Helix to Chromosome.
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