Identification of the endostyle as a stem cell niche in a colonial chordate
2008) The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate
Humans are part of a group of animals called chordates
, whose defining feature is a rod of cartilage that runs lengthwise along the middle of their body, under their spinal chord.
It clearly identifies the planet's most primitive chordate
At some point in their development from embryo to adult, all chordates
have a "notocord", a flexible rod supporting a nerve cord running down the back.
Although the tumor generally arises from the valvular endocardium of the mitral or aortic valve, there have been limited numbers of reports on isolated CPF of the mitral valve chordate
Molecular structures and the aligned amino acid sequences of different lectins isolated from various crustaceans, chordate
, mollusca, and marine algae are quite different.
Amphioxus mitochondrial DNA, chordate
phylogeny, and the limits of Inference based on comparisons of sequences.
Tables in the appendix list the DNA content of chordate
cell nuclei, the RNA and DNA content of vertebrate cell nuclei, and other quantitative data.
The Evolution of Alternative Splicing in the Pax Family: The View from the Basal Chordate
Amphioxus " J Mol Evol.
Perhaps many genes accumulated for other sensory functions, as noted in the sea urchin, and then when the first shallow water chordate
evolved, these genes were re-wired as photoreceptors and, using the ancient eye-organizing gene, evolved into a camera-type eye.
4 billion years ago, multicellular animals about 800 million and 700 million 0years ago and finally the Cambrian explosion of biodiversity of modern life forms including the first known chordate
about 500 million years ago.
For example, the natural pigmentation of Styela embryos enabled classic studies of chordate
development (Conklin 1905; Gehring 2004).
A total of nine morphological traits including (i) leaf width in centimeters of three center trifoliolate leaves; (ii) leaf length in centimeters of three center trifoliolate leaves; (iii) leaf shape, recorded as chordate
, ovate, rhombohedric, or hastate following the classification developed by Singh et al.
We are induced to consider Chordate
and its siblings as types and Work_Animal and its siblings as roles.