Residents from the Lamplighter Camarillo Mobile Home Park had asked Wells to strike down a permit issued by Ventura County Agricultural Commissioner Earl McPhail allowing the farm to fumigate 10 acres with methyl bromide and another pesticide, chloropicrin
is now typically the sole fungicidal fumigant in mixtures applied to soil prior to planting strawberries.
For all three trials, Telone C35 (a mixture of 1,3-D 61% and chloropicrin
35%, weight per weight [w/w]) was shank applied at an 18-inch depth with a 20-inch shank spacing using a commercial Telone shank applicator.
Of the fumigants registered in the state, only 1,3-D (alone or in combination with chloropicrin
or an MITC generator) is an approved treatment in nurseries with medium- to coarse-textured soils (table 1).
and 1,3-D are less volatile than MB, they can be applied to raised beds through drip systems and have been shown to be effective in controlling most soilborne pathogens and weed seeds, resulting in comparable strawberry yields.
Alternative fumigants being used are 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin
It is commonly combined with chloropicrin
to enhance control of soilborne pathogenic fungi.
The general practice in the Pacific Northwest has been to fumigate in fall with methyl bromide plus chloropicrin
(67:33 at 350 pounds per acre), crop for 2 years and finish with a year of bare fallow (in which fields are not planted and kept weed free) before repeating the cycle (Weiland et al.
1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin
concentrations under TIF were 46% to 54% higher than under standard film, and higher fumigant concentrations under TIF were correlated with higher strawberry fruit yields and better weed control.
Limited to a few registered compounds, growers have turned to alternative fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone or 1,3-D), chloropicrin
(CP) and methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generators (metam sodium or dazomet) (Trout 2006).
The Market is segmented By Form (Gas, Liquid and Solid), By Crop Application (Turf & Ornamental, Fruits & Vegetables, Cereals & Grains and Oilseeds & Pulses), By Function (Fungicide, Nematicide, Herbicide and Insecticide), By Type (1,3-Dichloropropene, Chloropicrin
, Methyl Bromide, Phosphine, Metam Sodium, and Other Agricultural Fumigants), By Application (Soil and Warehouse) -- 2018-2025
The use of other chemical fumigants, such as chloropicrin
, has increased.
The beds were fumigated 2 wk before setting transplants with a mixture containing 67% methyl bromide and 33% chloropicrin
at 246 kg/ha.
Chemical name Controls Allergic wheeze and group (n = 16,885) (n = 1,310) Current Current users % users % OR (95% CI) Fumigant Chloropicrin
1 2 1.
Some of the other soil fumigants under use are chloropicrin
, dimethyl disulfide, Telone C35 and methyl bromide (44,45).