As of April 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2013) listed five fumigant alternatives (and no nonfumigant alternatives) for the industry: dazomet, metam sodium (Vapam, Busan), chloropicrin
(Pic), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and two combinations of these: 1,3-D and chloropicrin
(Telone, Pic-Clor 60) and metam sodium and chloropicrin
Alternative fumigants permitted for use in California strawberries are 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), chloropicrin
and, as of December 2010, methyl iodide.
Helliker said that in the coming weeks, the Department will discuss possible approaches to regulations for methyl bromide and chloropicrin
with representatives of activist groups and the regulated community.
These chemicals can react with fumigants such as methyl bromide, 1,3-D, chloropicrin
and iodomethane (methyl iodide) to form nonvolatile compounds by dehalogenation (Gan, Yates, Becker, et al.
Exposure to chloropicrin
caus To encourage this dissipation, tarps are opened from the roof downward, allowing the gas to escape upward.
concentrations (data not shown) followed a similar pattern but were substantially lower than 1,3-D because the initial application rate was lower and the half-life of chloropicrin
in soil is generally much shorter than that of 1,3-D.
Ingham ER, Thies WG (1996) Responses of soil foodweb organisms in the first year following cleareutting and application of chloropicrin
to control laminated root rot.
Effects of soil fumigation with methyl bromide and chloropicrin
on root health and yield of strawberry.
Unfortunately, the masks were unacceptable and were sent back because the facepieces were easily penetrated by chloropicrin
was traditionally used in overland transmission lines away from inhabited areas owing to its difficult handling properties.
is also added to the methyl bromide at the rate of 2 per cent.
These agents are also referred to as choking agents and include chlorine gas, phosgene, diphosgene, and chloropicrin
Records show that the storage yard, which closed in 1946, may have contained the chemical agents mustard gas, lewisite, phosgene and chloropicrin
MIDAS([R])is comprised of a formulated blend of iodomethane and chloropicrin
and is effective at more than 40 percent lower use rates compared to methyl bromide.
Pest controller (1,3-dichloropropene, Chloropicrin
, Metam-K, Metam-Na, Methyl Bromide, and others)