Modern institutions supplanted traditional chieftaincies
as governing entities in many African countries, especially following independence.
Zondi paradoxically situates this black nationalistic ideal against the background of some sensitive Shakan practices: of conquering the smaller surrounding chieftaincies
King Mswati's brother, Prince Bhekimpi Dlamini, and other chiefs have forbidden women to wear trousers and miniskirts in their chieftaincies
Those who were successful negotiated a position for themselves with local rulers, acquiring women, slaves, cattle, land on which to settle, and a privileged position within African chieftaincies
as 'strangers' and traders.
The rumours were triggered by a series of protests against the evictions on 14 October of residents of two chieftaincies
who refused to be ruled by the King's brother, Prince Maguga Dlamini.
The history of these Ruhela chieftaincies
has hitherto been quite obscure.
The insurgency in Balochistan has arguably not as much to do with the Baloch genuine grouse as with the lust for power and money of its chieftaincies
Some communities established chieftaincies
in order to negotiate with others who already used the system.