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synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water

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Deep-sea clams belonging to the genus Calyptogena are the dominant members of various deep-sea chemosynthetic communities, and harbor intracellular, symbiotic, and thioautotrophic (i.
The ocean excursions took place in 2006 and 2007, and emphasized both chemosynthetic communities and deep-water or cold-water coral communities.
Activists cite technological advances as possible alternatives to animal testing, like the announcement at the recent American Chemical Society national meeting by Empiriko's Mukund Chorghade of their in vitro chemosynthetic livers (Biomimiks) that could reduce the animal-based toxicity testing on new drugs before taking them into clinical trials.
These chemosynthetic bacteria are happiest in the rich hydrogen sulfide current arising in black smokers and they attract a huge predator community of animals like tube worms and--a Solwara native--hairy snails.
The complex, located at the Methane Hydrate Seafloor Observatory, which is overseen by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium, consists of three active gas vents in different stages of evolution, with associated hardgrounds, chemosynthetic vent faunas, and four faults above a salt body 200 m below the sea floor.
Chemosynthetic bacteria have wildly different signatures than anything else, and our carbon-13 results match the classic chemosynthetic values.
There are some passing errors in detail: for example, page 69 refers to chemosynthetic bacteria as plants and says that eyes, being soft tissues, do not fossilize (some eyes have hard parts, as in most arthropods; rarely are soft-tissue eyes fossilized).
There might be a few chemosynthetic bacteria left, since these can obtain energy from chemical reactions other than photosynthesis.
I do already know that the concentration of the sulfur expelled from the hydrothermal vents is a necessary energy source for the chemosynthetic bacteria, which are the support of these life forms such as the tube worms or the giant clams.
Of particular concern for the Gulf NRDA process are: marine mammals and sea turtles, fish and shellfish, birds, deep water habitat (for example, deepwater corals and chemosynthetic communities), intertidal and near shore subtidal habitats (including sea grasses, mud flats, oyster beds, and coral reefs), shoreline habitats (including salt marshes, beaches, and mangroves), terrestrial wildlife, and habitats (for example, alligators and terrapins).
First direct evidences of methane seepage and associated chemosynthetic communities in the bathyal zone off Chile.
Fatty acid carbon isotope signatures in chemosynthetic mussels and tube worms from gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon seep communities.
In Table 4 are listed some of the most important standardized plant extract preparations that have shown complete therapeutic equivalence and fewer or no side effects in comparison with chemosynthetic compounds used for treatment of the same indications.
Organic origins differ mainly in the type of primal energy sources: photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, or heterotrophic.