2A1, D, F) suggest that they grew similarly to the grasping spines of chaetognaths, by basal accretion of thin laminae (Szaniawski 2002).
Phakelodus is treated as an ancestor of chaetognaths (Szaniawski 1982, 2002).
Other important prey included amphipods, chaetognaths
, crabs, and pollock (Fig.
Responses of the chaetognath
, Sagitta elegans, and larval Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, to spring diatom and copepod blooms in a temperate fjord (Dabob Bay, Washington, USA).
Other zooplankton components included euphausiids, chaetognaths
, Limacina pteropods, and larvaceans.
Invertebrates were also consumed, including mollusks, chaetognaths, nematodes, nemerteans, trematodes, polychaetes, and crustaceans.
Individuals that were captured in the water column (<50 mm TL) had pelagic taxa such as chaetognaths, hyperiid amphipods, calanoid copepods, and ostracods in their stomachs.
Some of the other factors that have been suggested to have at least some influence on rockfish recruitment include adult spawning biomass (Mason, 1998), increased predation by siphonophores and chaetognaths
on larval stages during years of high sea temperature (Yoklavich et al.
Their diet comprised seven major prey groups (copepods, chaetognaths, amphipods, euphausiids, ostracods, unidentified fish, and unidentified gelatinous prey) and was dominated by copepods and chaetognaths.
anonychus comprised seven major prey groups and was dominated by copepods (N=70%, WM=85%, F=74%, %IRI=87%) and chaetognaths (N=24%, WM=11%, F=48%, %IRI=12%) (Table 2).
Small red snapper (<60 mm SL) fed mostly on chaetognaths, copepods, shrimp, and squid.
0 mm SL, diets were dominated by shrimp, chaetognaths, squid, and copepods.
4 2 Chaetognaths
2 1 Larval and juvenile fishes 33 16 Invertebrate eggs 2 2 Chyme 5 2
Hyperiid amphipods, euphausiid larvae, chaetognaths, and barnacle and decapod larvae were rare in both seasons (Table 1).
Pollock also commonly consumed small amounts of other prey, such as larvaceans, gastropods, and chaetognaths.