Its cespitose habit offers excellent possibilities for management, and its harvest is considered sustainable by most authors (e.
2008), and cutting off shoots in cespitose palms (Calzavara, 1972; Jardim & Anderson, 1987; Pollak et al.
Appendix 1 Table 2 Synopsis of Palm Management in South America, Countries: BO, Bolivia; BR, Brazil; CH, Chile; CO, Colombia; EC, Ecuador; GU, Guyana; PE, Peru; SU, Suriname; UR, Uruguay; VE, Venezuela, Human Groups: AF, Afro-descendants; AM, Amerindians; ME, Mestizos or Caboclos, Harvest Techniques: CN, Climbing Neighboring Tree; CP, Climbing the Palm; CT, Cutting Tool at the End of a Pole; DH, Direct Harvest of Low or Acaulescent Palms; FM, Felling as a Consequence of Mismanagement; FR, Felling Required; GH, Harvest from the Ground; ND, No Data (but No Felling); SC, Shoot Cutting in Cespitose Palms.
We also computed the number of species in each growth-form category, percent cespitose species, and number of species with palmate or costapalmate leaves from the species lists.
A cespitose species will produce either a multistemmed palm (e.
The monospecific genus Tostimontia (Diaz-Piedrahita, 2001) from Sierra de Santa Marta in Colombia was distinguished from Jungia by the cespitose
habit, peltate leaves with foliaceous bracts, and solitary capitula.