A cutoff for RAI1 gains was not used because of the assumption that cases with gains in HER2, the centromere
, and RAI1 were unlikely to represent true HER2 amplification.
The Tau sequence was inserted downstream of the centromere
protein C (CENP-C) promoter to drive expression of the reporter.
A high frequency of metacentric chromosomes was observed in the complements of the 12 accessions, which is indicated by the average values of the centromere
indices (CI) and ratios obtained between the arms of the chromosomes (r) (Table 1).
The SDR gametes contain sister chromatids from the centromere
com)-- During mitosis, spindle fibers attach to the centromere
via the kinetochore.
The findings that C-bands localize in the centromere
and telomere regions of the chromosomes in A.
The chromosome enumeration probes hybridizing to the centromere
of the relevant chromosomes (LPE007R, Alpha satellite 7 Red; LPE017R, Alpha satellite 17 Red; LPE0YcR, Alpha satellite Y Red) were labelled with spectrum red.
The way in which a vital protein is loaded by others into the centromere
, the part of the chromosome that plays a significant role in cell division, has been identified by biologists.
is the chromosomal domain that directs the formation of the kinetochore, a proteinaceous structure that interacts with the spindle microtubules to ensure proper chromosmal segregation.
IHC scoring (0, 1 + ,2 + ,3 +)is based on the relative intensity of tumor cell membrane staining with the HER2 antibody, whereas FISH scoring is based on counting the signals corresponding to immobilized fluorescent HER2 and chromosome 17 centromere
(CEP17) hybridization probes.
Terminology regarding centromere
position followed that of Levan et al.
Normal human chromosomes are linear in structure consisting of two "arms" (designated "p" and "q") that flank a single active centromere
The structure of the centromere
and its functioning.
Micronuclei were scored as centromere
negative (clastogenic) or centromere
positive (aneugenic) based on the presence of CREST staining, which recognizes centromere
proteins within the kinetochore of each chromosome, within each micro-nucleus.
HER-2/neu gene amplification was determined by FISH according to Path Vysion (Vysis, Inc) in paraffin embedded tissue sections as a ratio of HER-2/neu gene copies-to chromosome 17 centromere