Variable response in human cell strains may lead to the discovery of candidate biomarkers related to at-risk worker populations, whereas the gene expression profile generally gives the potential to support genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of malathion.
Development and characterization of cell strains were achieved using standard methods (Stampfer 1985).
Similar gene expression alterations in response to malathion exposure were found in all cell strains for nine genes: a) aldo-keto reductase 1 (AKR1C1), b)aldo-keto reductase 2 (AKR1C2), c) an estrogen-responsive gene (EBBIP), d) plasminogen activator (PLAT), e) centromere protein F (CPF), f) replication factor C (RFC3), g) thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), h) putative mitotic checkpoint kinase (BUB1), and i) a gene of unknown function (AI859865).
Highlighting the importance of interindividual variation, three of the four cell strains showed similar alterations in select genes.
Okumura said the businessman approached him with a proposal to start a business mass-producing human cell strains and offered the 120 million yen in 1996, but declined to give further details of the deal in which the cell strains were put up for collateral.
He said he had objected to the Tokyo District Court's ruling in July declaring the cell strains to be collateral for the loans and the court seizure of the cell strains later that month.
No legal provisions exist to ban the purchase or sale of cell strains, and research institutions affiliated with universities sell strains for about 17,000 to 29,000 yen per ampoule to other research institutions.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology set guidelines this spring requiring researchers to obtain the consent of individuals whose genes are used in studies, but did not set legal provisions that ban transactions of cell strains for research purposes.