pens burn at more than 1000C and sear designs into the flesh.
Treatment has until recently involved cauterising
these new vessels with lasers in the hope of preserving some useful vision.
An electric probe then uses sodium ions to zap tissue, cauterising
blood vessels as it goes.
But the operation on Bruce,carried out by a cauterising
machine at a local hospital, resulted in severe burning and the loss of his penis.
the soft palate is not a particularly invasive procedure, but neither is it guaranteed to benefit a horse with breathing problems.