As our samples from the caudal fin
of all three taxa contain the l.
Spinous dorsal-fin membrane completely dark and without spots, dorsal and caudal fin
uniform dark blue to black, thin unpigmented strip on distal margin of caudal fin
; anal fin slightly lighter, gray-blue to dark gray; pelvic fins light gray with blue tips, spine white to light gray; pectoral fins mostly dark blue-black, distal half of unbranched pectoral-fin rays light gray to white.
distal margin rounded, with 22-24 rays in males and 22-26 fin rays in females.
Experimental measurement and analysis on the wake vortex of oscillating flexible caudal fin
, Journal of Hydrodynamics 24(1): 106-112.
Tail-beating (a male slaps his caudal fin
at the opponent) occasionally occurred, and there was one instance of mouthfighting (males tumble about with jaws locked together).
The caudal fin
was large and clearly hypocercal, the main ventral lobe being noticeably more stout than the dorsal lobe, although the dorsal and ventral lobes were nearly equal in posterior extent.
All of the specimens had a distinct mid-lateral stripe from the tip of the snout to the base of the caudal fin
, which was used to identify them as L.
basis and medial portion golden yellow, distal portion hyaline, with rows of small blue spots.
3A), but depressed fin pale yellow with oblique rows of dark pigment; adipose fin pale with at least one dark marking dorsally; pectoral fin pale with approximately 6 wavy, irregular bars of dark brown pigment; pelvic fins bright yellow; anal fin yellow; center of caudal fin
(at anterior end of fork) and posterior portion of ventral caudal lobe dark gray to brown; dorsal caudal lobe pale with light, dusky pigment on posterior margin; dorsal caudal lobe with 2-3 small brown bars on procurrent rays.
longipes are the counts of the dorsal and anal rays, especially the first dorsal-fin count of V spines, and having a trilobed instead of a rhomboid caudal fin
Scales cycloid; head scaled except interorbital space, snout and chin; opercle covered by seven large scales; cheek with two horizontal rows of scales below eye; naked lower flange of preopercle thin, greatest width at angle about 2 in orbit diameter in holotype; base of dorsal and anal fins with single row of large elongated scales, one per membrane; last pored scale on lateral line at base of caudal fin
enlarged and pointed; terminal scale on midline just posterior to last pored scale very enlarged and pointed; no scales on paired fins; pelvic fins with median ventral process of two elongate scales about three-fourths the length of pelvic spine, thin axillary scale of each pelvic fin about three-fourths the length of pelvic spine.
mostly deep pink with small black spots antero-ventrally.
The confluence of the dorsal and caudal fin
was scored (0 = not confluent, 1 = confluent).
2) Gently fan the caudal fin
and remove one half with the razor blade (Figure 1).
With the size of the model boat and the volume of the sink taken into consideration, the parameters of caudal fin
model are listed in Table 2, showing that the maximum ratio of the spreading is 8.