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9), lack the distal lamina differentiation suggesting a truncation in distal identity due to the lack or premature cessation of cell division and/or the lack or down-regulation of distal identity gene homologs (potentially ARP orthologs) during cataphyll growth.
Thus, our goals in the present paper are to examine the development of both long shoots and short shoots; to investigate the structural homology between the spines, the cataphylls, the simple leaves, and the pinnately-compound leaves present in Berberis s.
Cataphyll single; basal part naked and smooth; distal
Cataphyll single, slightly furrowed; opening lengthwise;
These features are associated with almost constant features such as a single cataphyll, coleoptile present or absent, entire eophyll, reduced axis, parallel or palmate venation, induplicate plication, epidermal cells rectangular or sometimes rhombohedral, major veins associated or not associated with ridges, phloem strands 1-3, and metaxylem vessels 1-2.
Cataphylls three; apex acute; thick claw-like ligular fibrous extensions.
Polyxylic stem covered by cataphylls and persistent rhomboidal foliar bases.
alternating cycles of cataphylls and persistent foliar bases (Fig.
Cataphylls triangular basally, lanceolate apically, 3-6 cm
Cataphylls triangular basally, linear-lanceolate apically, 3-8 cm
Examples of such structural synapomorphies for the extant Cycadales are girdling leaf traces, an inverted omega pattern of vascular bundle arrangement in petiole and cataphyll bases, protoxylem poles changing from endarch in the stem to exarch in the leaf traces, a primary thickening meristem, a contractile taproot, and ageotropic, coralloid, lateral roots (Stevenson, 1990b; Norstog & Nicholls, 1998).
It is also important to note that cataphyll traces are not girdling in extant cycads (Stevenson, 1990b).
Study indicates these to be cataphylls (Mora-Osejo, 1984; Wanntorp et al.
Cataphylls narrowly triangular, soft, pilose, 40-50 mm long,
keeled pinnae that are more narrowed at the base, and longer cataphylls.
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