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Once released from fat stores, free fatty acids travel to the liver where again, due to lack of insulin and increased catabolic hormones, the oxidation pathway is switched to generate ketone bodies: beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid.
Chronic exposure to stressors can indeed stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and induce a disbalance between anabolic and catabolic hormones, responsible of
2002) Effects of resistance exercise volume and nutritional supplementation on anabolic and catabolic hormones.
A multitude of hormones that exert anabolic effects such as testosterone, growth hormone (GH) super family, insulin and insulin-like growth hormone-I regulate protein synthesis, whereas cortisol stimulates muscle degradation and inhibits protein synthesis, as a catabolic hormone (Kimball et al.