(8 per virus) were injected with WNV strain NY99, Greece-10, FIN, Ita09, or 578/10.
Usually carrion crows
feed on the dead, as their name implies, though a YouTube video from the 2009 Lambing Live season, which shows co-ordinated attacks by four determined birds on a lamb, is evidence they also prey on the living.
In the new study, researchers analyzed 741 carrion crow
nests at a site in Spain over 16 years.
I identified Carrion Crows
as egg predators based on two video recordings and the main predators in this study area are most likely birds.
So, instead of images of weeping frozen tears, a forlorn hurdy-gurdy man standing barefoot on the ice, carrion crows
circling overhead, and a general despair of loneliness, isolation, and lovelessness, Susan Friesen's winter journey expresses the beauty of her island's isolation, of snowdrifts along fence lines, snow-crusted country roads, wind-drifted contours of snow banks, the stark outline of bare trees against white fields, and the beautiful paleness of winter twilight.
Reports have poured in from all over the country that carrion crows
have been destroying car windscreen wipers.
Jet-black ravens are distinguishable from carrion crows
due to their huge size, croaking calls and stout beak.
And I fear that there will be carrion crows
in abundance to digest the remains of those establishments whose sales of liquids has not been sufficient to prevent their liquidation.
Mr Graham Madge, spokesman for the society, said: "While in law there is provision for farmers and landowners to control wood pigeon, jackdaws, magpies, carrion crows
and rooks, the society believes that there should be an onus on farmers to decide whether such controls are necessary.
We forget that, like carrion crows
, they tend to be low grade, ruthless individuals.
Closer to home, in Scotland, bachleor carrion crows
swooped on nests and carried off babies while parents were away looking for food.
His total of 134 measurements included 21 species, but more than half came from three: carrion crows
, house sparrows and Eurasian blackbirds.
Dr David Baines, GWCT upland director of research and lead author of the study, published in the Journal of Applied Ecology, said: "Devising techniques that can be put in place to reduce the impact of harriers on grouse would mean that harriers could breed more successfully on grouse moors where their natural predators such as carrion crows
, hooded crows and red foxes, which predate clutches, chicks or even adults, are legally killed by gamekeepers on grouse moors to optimise grouse stocks.
We might also see starlings, rooks and carrion crows
landing on our lawns and using their long beaks to extract these grubs, hopefully.
Nesting on the ground, the eggs and chicks of red grouse are vulnerable to a range of predators, so the legal control of common predators such as foxes, stoats, weasels and carrion crows
is essential, not only for red grouse, pictured, but for species of threatened ground-nesting birds that share the same habitat.