Symbiotic wasp pollinators in warmer climates are thought, by some, to have more restricted ranges than in colder climates; such that in warmer areas of Southwest Asia and North Africa today artificial caprification (or artificially-induced pollination using hermaphroditic caprifig donors) is required if 'a good crop of edible figs of nonparthenocarpic varieties is to be obtained' (Valdeyron & Lloyd 1979: 683).
The results of controlled cross-breeding indicate that far from being a 'reproductive dead end', the mutant allele (P) representing the persistence of syconia without pollination can be inherited by progeny of caducous and persistent female figs when cross-bred with persistent caprifigs (e.
Secondly, land management practices could have depleted the density of less-valued and often less-palatable caprifigs in the landscape, thereby inhibiting the pollination of female fig trees (after Kjellberg & Valdeyron 1984).
This wasp lays eggs within the fruit of an inedible fig called the caprifig.
Under cultivated conditions in the Middle East, branches from caprifig trees are hung in Smyrna fig trees in order to insure the process of caprification - that is, transfer of caprifig pollen, by wasps, to flowers of the Smyrna fig.