in -i), Maltese has neither borrowed nor calqued
the Romance reflexive pattern, providing another specific instance of diachronic stability.
68) It is not possible to ascertain whether the Old French terms were actually calqued
on the Medieval Latin, but the evidence does seem to point in that direction.
Shippey observes that there is a strong association between the Riders of Rohan in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and the Anglo-Saxons of poetry and history, and more specifically that "the chapter 'The King of the Golden Hall' is straightforwardly calqued
on Beowulf" (94).
The former is an idiom (perhaps calqued
on French jusqu'au point de) whose lexical entry stipulates its use as an adjunct.
26) A possible exception is the present tense beon : wesan distinction which may perhaps have been calqued
on the distinction between the copula and the verbum substantivum in Brittonic as well as in the other Celtic languages.
19) This would be true too of the account of Gauvain's visit to the Fisher King's castle, which is calqued
on Perceval's experiences in Chretien's romance.
Although phrasal verbs similar to these are attested in Classical Mandaic, most Neo-Mandaic phrasal verbs are calqued
upon Persian phrasal verbs, and many of the nonverbal elements are Persian or Arabic loan words.
These cases can be explained as archaisms: at least nine are attested since medieval times and several can be shown to be calqued
on Latin head-final patterns (cabrahigo < L.