dubbed texts, best sellers, and popular literature) reveals that "in a vast majority of cases translators chose an approach nearer to transcoding than to rewriting: the structure of texts, of periods and even of utterances is calqued
on that of the source text" (my translation, Garzone, 112).
Numerous loanwords in terminology were taken, and some were calqued
, from or via Latin, e.
In the language variety used by Scandinavian speakers with English speakers, including caregiver speech to young children, the syntax of English negative clauses is likely to have been calqued
on that of Scandinavian, and featured a postverbal negator equivalent to ME not calqued
on Scandinavian eigi (see e.
In conclusion, this derivation for flamenco may be summarized in the following formula: a Romani lexeme calqued
into Andalusian, possibly with a degree of ingroup encryption, then appropriated by speakers of germania and Castilian, with a concurrent phonological reshaping and superficial semantic anchoring in a pre-existent term that already had an exotic coloring of its own.
5) Supporting pairs like i, calqued
on examples in Reeves, correspond to noncontrasts like ii:
in -i), Maltese has neither borrowed nor calqued
the Romance reflexive pattern, providing another specific instance of diachronic stability.
We can however posit the possibility that Feerie pour une autre fois, like Guignol's Band, might be calqued
on The Tempest, for both works begin with their narrator / author telling the story of their betrayal before, in both cases, going on to machinate a spectacular narrative through a fantastical other (Ariel and Jules).
In contemporary Czech terminology terms are calqued
chiefly from the classical languages.
Examples of words and expressions modelled on a Spanish structure are scarce but worth noting; they include liberation theology and fifth column (the translation of teologia de la liberacion and quinta columna), which have also been calqued
in other languages; God's eye, from MexSpan ojo de dios, a decorative small cross; dark night (of the soul), from the noche oscura of San Juan de la Cruz; the moment of truth, from el momento de la verdad, drawn from bullfight language and popularized by E.
This usage which was to be frequently recorded in the fifteenth century and later (unlike the sense 'dedicate' which is rarely so: see Appendix) is clearly calqued
on earlier Anglo-Norman and Latin idiom.
6); though they are also found in prosaic and scientific contexts, their most frequent use is poetic, often to give a Greek flavouring as calqued
on Greek compounds with [Greek Text Omitted]- (many, much).
3, on which see below) or use of ritual formulae, and no expressions calqued
First it restricts the types of compounds that exist in the language (no root compounds, no phrasal compounds, to the exception of calqued
ones, a popular strategy in journalese in Modern Bulgarian), it regulates the non-productivity of compound verbs and limits their typology, etc.
When the Latin phrase was calqued
but also supplemented with more information in Scots, the label extended calque was used, see examples (7-10).
Shippey observes that there is a strong association between the Riders of Rohan in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and the Anglo-Saxons of poetry and history, and more specifically that "the chapter 'The King of the Golden Hall' is straightforwardly calqued
on Beowulf" (94).