As I have just noted, most nineteenth-century writers who espoused gymnastics for women approved of calisthenic exercises, several of which are recognizable today.
Trall, The Illustrated Family Gymnasium, Containing the Most Improved Methods of Applying Gymnastic, Calisthenic, Kinesepathic, and Vocal Exercises to the Development of the Bodily Organs, the Invigoration of their Functions, the Preservation of Health and the Cure of Diseases and Deformities (New York, 1857), 26-27; Elizabeth Powell, instructor for physical training requests a cast of the Venus de Milo for Vassar Gymnasium, 16 Oct.
See, for example, Catharine Beecher, Calisthenic Exercises, in Physiology and Calisthenics, Catharine Beecher (New York, 1856), 20.
A Course of Calisthenics for Young Ladies in Schools and Families with some remarks on Physical Education (Hartford, CT, 1831), 18, 23, 27, 67; "Calisthenic Exercises," Atkinson's Casket, 7 (1832): 186; Mrs.
Some texts were concerned about underdeveloped or weak lungs Beecher, Calisthenic Exercises, 11; Phelps, The Educator, 110; Lewis, Treasury, 267.
Beecher, Calisthenic Exercises, 11, 12; Dio Lewis, Treasury, 267.
Beecher, Calisthenic Exercises, 12, 52); "First Arm Position: Arms Up
Beecher, Calisthenic Exercises, 11, 13; Beecher, Physiology and Calisthenics, 192; Report of the Department of Physical Training, 17 June 1867, Archives and Special Collections, Vassar College.
85; Child, 249; Beecher, Calisthenic Exercises, 41; Fitzgerald, 249; Dio Lewis, "Mistakes in Gymnastics," Lewis' New Gymnastics for Ladies, Gentlemen, and Children and Boston Journal of Physical Culture (1860): no.
80-81; Beecher, Physiology and Calisthenics, iii-iv, 12; Beecher, Calisthenic Exercises, 9-10; Letter from Love Brown to Helen, Normal Institute for Physical Culture, 11 August 1866, Mount Holyoke Alumnae; Lewis, "The New Gymnastics," 131; Powell, "Physical Culture," 134.
Often referred to as calisthenics in order to denote their feminization, gymnastic systems deemed appropriate for U.
Although we lack conclusive proof that gymnastics and calisthenics were practiced in the majority of female academies and seminaries of the day, irrefutable evidence exists that they were included in the curricula of leading northeastern female seminaries and women's colleges--most of which trained teachers who carried their pedagogical training with them to schools in mid-western, in southern, and in western regions of the expanding nation.
In this context, specifically between 1830-1870, calisthenics and gymnastics regimes designed for U.
Such was the milieu in which nineteenth-century gymnastics and calisthenics systems offered women palliatives for infirmities that were equated with consumptive female invalidism.
49) For example, Beecher's first formal instructions regarding her Calisthenics Exercises appertained to the "Military Position