We achieved these results by increasing productivity and capacity and by increasing our investments, particularly by modernizing our processing factory," says Juan Manuel Calisaya
Mediana, AISJ's general manager.
Thirty, years later, his Indian guide, Manuel Incra Mamami, found a Bolivian species, Cinchona calisaya from the Aymara cali, meaning best, and saya, meaning bark--which contained a quinine content of 13 percent, more than three times the average.
Military botanists retraced the footsteps of Hipolito Ruiz arid La Condamine to secure supplies in the wild, working mostly in Colombia and Ecuador, but were never able to find the quinine-rich calisaya groves in Bolivia.
The Fever Trail is an illuminating, profusely detailed, and confusingly organized yarn about the arduous European quest to end the South American quinine monopoly by transplanting cinchona and red calisaya trees, whose bark had an even higher concentration of quinine, to plantations in Europe, India, and Indonesia.
Honigsbaum is sympathetic to the South Americans, and dubs the European efforts to obtain cinchona and calisaya roja seeds "The Biggest Robbery in History.
Honigsbaum's meandering narrative returns again and again to the three main players, all English, involved in the transfer of cinchona and calisaya trees into European hands.
, a bittersweet liqueur in the style of Italian amaros ("bitters"); Iris, a liqueur infused with Iris root and other botanicals
is among just 11 companies nationwide listed as finalists in the spirits category for its Iris & Calisaya