We have calculated the long-run estimates of elasticities and buoyancies, (6) using the PAM and DIM, as well as the short-run estimates for various taxes.
Firstly, the low buoyancies of the income tax and export duties have adversely affected the overall buoyancy of the total tax whose other components are fairly buoyant.
A comparison of tax and expenditure buoyancies in Table 5 shows that during the years from 1971-72 to 1982-83 revenue productivity was not a major problem in Pakistan in so far as the expenditure buoyancies have been lower than revenue buoyancies.
3) Two estimates of buoyancies have been calculated, viz.
46 Table 3 Elasticities and Buoyancies of Federal Taxes Elasticity DIM PAM Buoyancy Total Taxes 1.