References in periodicals archive ?
The problem, she says, is that buckthorns form a dense cover 20 feet above the ground that shrouds the forest floor in almost total darkness.
This committee categorizes as weeds many prized and commercially popular garden staples--from European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), a Eurasian immigrant planted as specimen trees or dense hedges, to butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii), a shrub promoted for its fragrant, bright-colored flowers.
In woodlands invaded by European buckthorn, Pail Vitt of the Chicago Botanic Garden finds dramatic stunting and compromised reproduction in a rare native wildflower, the dog violet (Viola conspersa).
Like buckthorn, the Norway maple's dense canopy withholds light from shorter plants.