workers from competing with undocumented migrants is functioning more like the infamous Bracero
program, which ended only after extensive lobbying by organized labor and its allies (Calavita, 1992).
and Mexican governments administered the bracero
program from 1942-64, funneling Mexican workers into low-paying agriculture jobs in California and the Southwest and, some say, laying the foundation for the current immigration debate.
The operation of the Bracero
Program, for example, involved disagreements between the Department of Agriculture, which generally favored it, and the Department of Labor, which at the end worked to curtail the program (see Craig, 1971; see also Calavita, 1992).
were charged after being identified from photo arrays.
Organizer Jesse Diaz, a doctoral candidate at University of California, Riverside, said Chavez rejected an early immigrants-rights movement, denouncing the bracero
program that would have brought immigrant workers from Mexico to work the field for lower wages and without unionization.
While Lupe and I threw together a Mexa-Rican dinner, she ran down what had happened, why it happened on pay day, Bracero
laws, Anglo lawlessness, the open slavery of Mexican farm workers and a good chunk of my innocence died right there on Lupes' kitchen floor.
At the same time, said Vigil, the Southwest needed labor, and the Mexicans were welcome under various programs, such as the bracero
When he was 13, he moved from Mexico to North Hollywood to join his father, who worked as a bracero
The classic example of a spouse in poor health receiving permanent alimony rather than rehabilitative alimony was illustrated by the Fifth District in Bracero
Under the bracero
program, who was allowed to work on U.
The zoot suit, generating the connotations of slang, swing, leisure, dysfunction, and urbanism because of its visibility in night clubs, and through jazz musicians, and riots, also constituted, like gangster movies, bracero
youths' response to white paranoia and white projection of bracero
youths as deviants.
Japanese during World War II as well as the Mexican bracero
The original Bracero
Program was an exception to the restrictive 1917 Immigration Act, which prohibited both illiterate immigrants and those "induced .
program and implemented per-country limits on legal immigration.
In 1964, Congress ended the Bracero
program that had brought laborers from Mexico to the United States since 1942.