I turned in my stand and, in the dying light, saw a large buck attacking some low-hanging limbs on one of the box elders.
A sinking feeling drained into my belly, but before it had time to settle, the buck inexplicably turned straight toward me, walked about 10 yards, and then curved back toward the box elders.
fremontii) located under box elder (Acer negundo) were colonized by two to three times more cankerworms, and suffered two to three times greater defoliation than cottonwoods growing under mature cottonwoods, or cottonwoods growing in the open.
Within our study area, early larval feeding is restricted primarily to box elder (Acer negundo).
The timing of late instar cankerworm dispersal is heavily dependent on box elder infestation levels, which varied considerably from tree to tree.
One member of each block was placed under box elder, one under a mature cottonwood, and one in the open.
Observationally, we evaluated host preference by estimating fall cankerworm egg densities on box elder and cottonwood.
Scarcity of cottonwood and box elder at this elevation makes previous exposure to these hosts unlikely.
The bags were placed on branches of different box elder and cottonwood trees in the field (three bags per tree species).
Cottonwoods under box elder supported 30X more cankerworms per shoot than trees in the open, with cottonwoods under conspecifics showing statistically intermediate cankerworm densities (Kruskal-Wallis H = 13.
001), and cottonwoods located under box elder suffered three times greater defoliation than trees located in the open (Kruskal-Wallis H = 10.