In order to examine the clearance of potential and unexpected viral contaminants, a panel of four model viruses rep resenting enveloped and nonenveloped viruses and a broad range of physical and chemical characteristics were selected: bovine parvovirus
(BPV), xenotropic mucine leukemia virus ()(MuLV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (Table 1).
Viruses: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheaitis virus (IBR), Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV), Bovine Parvovirus
(BPV); (2) fungi: Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger; (3) Parasite: Cryptosporidium parvum.
Further studies on thermal resistance of bovine parvovirus
against moist and dry heat.
net) and sequences of canine minute virus (MVC) and bovine parvovirus
The latter belongs to the Parvoviridae family and is most closely related to bovine parvovirus
and canine minute virus (CnMV), which are members of the genus Bocavirus (6).