Draconian methods of dealing with a recalcitrant bourgeoisie have been on the agenda not only of Arab Marxists, but also have been endorsed by western development theorists and practitioners.
Indictments of the first Arab bourgeoisie for having failed adequately to industrialize their respective countries take two forms.
16) But he and other writers, despite their awareness of these contributions, continue to endorse the accepted wisdom that the first bourgeoisie did not bring about sustained, rapid economic development.
The national bourgeoisie of the liberal era has also been indicted for its political shortcomings.
Information had previously been available, however, that already cast doubt on the interpreation of the Arab bourgeoisie as total failures.
26) But agrarian reform in the Middle East was impelled not by economic, but by political considerations, chief of which was to destroy the power of the agrarian bourgeoisie.
The performance of the first Arab bourgeoisie in the industrial sector also appears more favorable in light of recent research.
That industrialization under the auspices of the first Arab bourgeoisie was due to one or another special circumstance is a proposition difficult to sustain.
Second, conditions frame a dilemma for the African bourgeoisie which in a bid to maintain its class domination may never adopt a radical ideological position capable of radicalizing the masses, and promoting revolution.
Accordingly, Morgan Tvsangirai may revert to his petty bourgeoisie or pre-crisis mentality and even de-radicalize the revolutionary pressure.
And the petty bourgeoisie leaders at this point are confronted with a daunting choice: either betray the revolution by switching alliance with imperialist capital, or remain faithful to the anti-imperialist goals of the struggle (a kind of suicide mission) as a class in order to be reborn as revolutionary workers, completely identified with the deepest aspirations of the people to which they belong.
The argument of Ake recast runs thus: by integrating Zimbabwe's economy into the global economy, the country became entrapped in an unhealthy competition with the established Western bourgeoisie countries.
That is, the class of bourgeoisie and the class of proletariat.
Earlier on, Ake (1978:76) explained that there are strong revolutionary pressures and social forces in Africa which arise from the need to maintain the existing exploitative class relations and the very survival of the African bourgeoisie.
Was he, as Cabral (1979) aptly put it while describing revolution in Guinea, "to give free rein to its natural tendencies to become more bourgeoisie, to permit the development of a bureaucratic and intermediary bourgeoisie in the commercial cycle in order to transform itself into national pseudo-bourgeoisie", that is to negate the revolution and ally itself with imperialist capital.