Objectification theory, where the connection between gay males and women has been described in in terms of similar levels of femininity, may explain some related body image disturbances
(Fredrickson & Roberts 1997).
This research has demonstrated a relationship between negative cognitive processes and body image disturbance
(Altabe & Thompson, 1996; Jakatdar, Cash, & Engle, 2006).
We can start with global symptoms such as self-injury or body image disturbance
and then proceed down a decision tree to define the boundaries between BDD and other psychiatric disorders.
The relationship between objectification, body image disturbances
, and disordered eating: Investigating race, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and self-objectification as mediators (Doctoral dissertation, Duke University, 1997).
Although research conducted with adolescents from industrialized and developing societies suggests that this age group is particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances
, there is a paucity of information on this topic among adolescents from Latin America (Fonseca, Sichieri, & Veiga, 1998).
It may be beneficial for future research to include such a screen to examine whether the relationships observed would also apply to individuals with clinical level body image disturbances
In addition, Maude, Wertheim, Gibbons, and Szmukler (1993) concluded that female high school students displayed higher body image disturbance
and dissatisfaction than male students.
Equivalence of body image disturbance
in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.
It's also sometimes difficult to tell whether young children display the same kind of disordered body image disturbance
as older children with eating disorders, who often proclaim themselves "fat" or "disgusting.
More research is needed, however, that qualitatively assesses other cultural values among gay and bisexual men that may influence the development of body image disturbance
Exacting beauty: Theory; assessment, method, and treatment of body image disturbance
Primary prevention of body image disturbance
and disordered eating in childhood and early adolescence.
The lack of focus on the determinants of body image disturbance
among males may be due to the finding that eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, affect a substantially smaller percentage of adolescent males than females (Braun et al.
Helping patients overcome body image disturbance
is a key step in recovering from an eating disorder," said Judi Goldstein, MSS, LSW, conference chair and vice president of professional relations and education for The Renfrew Center.
Contributors treat adults, adolescents, and children with body image disturbances
, depression, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies through modalities including art therapy, play therapy, music therapy, poetry, psychodrama, dance/movement therapy, the Sesame Approach blending movement and storytelling, and spirituality.