Parameter Categories/units Sex male, female Longevity (days) Age at first reproduction (days) Length of reproductive phase (days) Length of post-reproductive phase (days) Offspring number number Birth interval
(days) Birth rate per year throughout the entire lifespan (number/year) Birth rate per year throughout the reproductive phase (number/year) Percentage of offspring surviving > 100 days (%) Mean longevity of offspring (days) Table 2.
The present study recommends that there should be counseling of mothers related to education, not to get marry at an early age, maintaining a birth interval
more than three years, supplementation of iron during pregnancy and to avoid the cousin marriages.
Moreover, changes in risky birth interval
and possession of hygienic toilet were negligible.
Birth order, birth interval
, and number of children in the family showed no significant association with school performance and behavior.
For Models 2 and 2a, we repeat the general analysis of our first and second models but exclude first (live) births and include the preceding birth interval
4930) Birth Interval
Number of Previous Live Births Still Living Number of Previous Live Births No Longer Living Number of Previous Fetal Deaths Number of previous low birth weight births Cardiac Disease 0.
HIV-positive and HIV-negative women differed with respect to age, parity, length of last birth interval
, child survival, childbearing intentions and intention to breastfeed, with HIV-positive women both desiring and having fewer children.
Four percent had given birth after age 39, and 36% had had a birth interval
of less than two years.
There was no significant difference in the average birth interval
between contraceptive users and non-users (p = 0.
The median birth interval
is slightly longer for births in urban areas and the percentage of women who begin childbearing under the age of 20 in rural areas is double the rate in urban areas.
Professor Emily Grundy, from the Centre of Population Studies at the School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in London, who led the research, said, 'We show that having a short birth interval
of less than 18 months between children carries higher risks of mortality and poor health.
This is the first, and certainly the most ambitious, attempt to do this sort of rigorous meta-analysis" of the birth interval
, says physician C.
Those people who are in a relationship for the entire birth interval
are more likely to have a third child than those who have a disrupted pattern of relationship.
One thing is that older women assert that it is health concerns that induce them to use contraceptives to extend the birth interval
beyond the time of weaning.
Thus, women in the study population have a maximum birth interval
of five years; the median birth interval
is 33 months, with a range from 10 to 60 months.