The preceding birth interval
and the survival status of the older siblings are the most important demographic determinants of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality.
In both models, the likelihood of adopting fertility control seems to be less among married women who had relatively longer duration of postpartum amenorrhea (longer duration of birth intervals
and/or breast-feeding); while relatively more fecund respondents, and those with a relatively longer duration of marriage, are expected to more likely adopt fertility regulations.
Illustrative Analysis: Life Table Analysis of Birth Intervals
Important to measure would be things like a woman's age at first marriage, number of years in marriage, length of postpartum infecundable period when she cannot conceive, and length of birth intervals
, all set against the countdown from menarche to menopause.
Variables The units or the level of the variables Independent Categorical variable, 1 if the child is a variables multiple birth and 0 if a singleton Multiple/twin Birth interval
Length of time, in months, between the current birth and the prior birth Birth order Number of previously born children Child's sex Categorical variable, 0 if the child is male and 1 if female Mother's age Age of mother in years Mother's Height for age standard deviations from the height reference median (as calculated by DHS) Education Highest level of education attended by the mother.
There was no statistically significant difference in the average birth interval
between women who used contraception (46%) and those who did not (54%).
For each birth, investigators calculated the preceding birth interval
(time between the birth of the preceding child and the birth of the index child) and the succeeding birth interval
(time between the birth of the index child and the birth of the succeeding child).
Inclusion of child-level characteristics in model 2 did not affect associations of under-5 deaths with children in the more disadvantaged UADI quintiles, but the relative risk was double for children of high birth order after short birch interval (order [greater than or equal to] 5 and < 24 months) compared with children of intermediate birth order and birth interval
(order 2-4 and 24-47 months).
Biological determinants (twin births, male sex, short birth interval
, previous early neonatal loss) were important for outcomes.
Table 3 shows that a long preceding birth interval
of at least four years is associated with significantly better height-for-age (OR=0.
If couples marry at a very young age, decisions on number of children, use of contraceptives, and the like may be formed at a less mature age, consequently affecting the birth interval
(Bumpass et al.
Children most likely to be stunted and underweight were those whose mothers were aged 40-44 years, mothers with no education, children from rural areas and children with birth interval
Of the demographic variables, the number of children ever born and the length of the birth interval
were factors strongly correlated with the risk of child death.
It has further found that mortality declines as the length of the birth interval
The practice of breastfeeding has an inhibitory effect on ovulation and thus this increases the birth interval
and reduces natural fertility.