We know that neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a medical emergency, because unconjugated bilirubin is neurotoxic in certain concentration and under various conditions and may cause bilirubin encephalopathy
There are two major complications of hyperbilirubinaemia: acute bilirubin encephalopathy
, and kernicterus.
Though majority of the times jaundice is physiological, it creates anxiety amongst clinicians and parents as bilirubin is toxic to the central nervous system, if the value is very high it leads to bilirubin encephalopathy
Alex and Gallant (2008) reinforce that as long as the baby is thriving and other pathologies have been ruled out, breast milk jaundice is not known to result in bilirubin encephalopathy
They address genetics, biochemistry, transport, metabolism of bilirubin, the physiology and epidemiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, public policy measures, clinical management, and interventions for the prevention and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin encephalopathy
in low and middle-income countries.
The process of observation, clinical monitoring, and laboratory testing that continues throughout the infant's first week of life has a single objective--to prevent extreme hyperbilirubinemia [a TSB concentration >25-30 mg/dL (>428-513 [micro]mol/L)] and its rare but dreaded consequence, bilirubin encephalopathy
Although the majority of neonatal jaundice is benign, a small number of hyperbilirubinemia poses a major health problem in term of bilirubin encephalopathy
or kernicterus (3).
There isn't enough evidence one way or another to recommend screening infants for jaundice as a way to detect and prevent chronic bilirubin encephalopathy
, according to a new statement from the U.
Although universal screening for jaundice in near-term and term infants is widespread in the United States, the task force found that there isn't a screening test that can reliably identify all infants at risk for developing chronic bilirubin encephalopathy
The baby was given cardiopulmonary resuscitation on arrival, but died 4 hours later of acute bilirubin encephalopathy
Though his miracles can be grotesquely warped--a birth is marred by bilirubin encephalopathy
, a gift of literacy steals the power of speech--they are all, inevitably, about life or power.
No evidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin levels greater than 20 mg/dL) or acute or chronic bilirubin encephalopathy
was observed among neonates in this study.
Long-term results of severe hyperbilirubinemia, including bilirubin encephalopathy
and kernicterus, were thought to be rare since the advent of exchange transfusion, maternal Rh immunoglobulin prophylaxis, and phototherapy.
The former does not need special treatment,6 but the latter, which originates from various factors, easily leads to bilirubin encephalopathy
and even brain damage or death.
Cairo University Children's Hospital in Egypt, for example, admits about 250 babies per year with Bt concentrations >25 mg/dL (428 [micro]mol/L), a value identified as critical by the AAP, and has already provided important information regarding risk factors for acute bilirubin encephalopathy