Although the self-injection is a robust method relying on self-focusing, self-compression of the laser pulse and expansion of the bubble (49) that occur during the propagation of relativistic laser pulses, initially heated (accelerated) electrons with large transverse momentum are injected into nonlinear wakefields that excite betatron
oscillation of accelerated electrons due to strong focusing field.
Unfortunately this lattice leads to a large betatron
tune variation across the required energy range for acceleration as opposed to the scaling lattice.
Another finalist was Dr John A Mills, radiotherapy physics manager at University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, for his Compact Betatron
Total Skin Electron Treatment Unit.
The red giants and supergiants produce large nuclei copiously in their interiors, the novae and supernovae do so explosively, and the magnetic stars manufacture heavy elements near their surfaces by the betatron
To extend the lifetime the vertical betatron
oscillation is excited (13,14), causing the vertical angular spread and beam size to increase.
Accelerator and betatron
machines beam these rays at the patients.
This new device, called the betatron
(because it accelerated beta particles), made useful electron bombardment possible.