To avoid the slow crossing of betatron
resonances associated with a typical low energy-gain per turn, the first FFAGs designed and constructed so far have been based on the "scaling" principle.
Another finalist was Dr John A Mills, radiotherapy physics manager at University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, for his Compact Betatron
Total Skin Electron Treatment Unit.
To extend the lifetime the vertical betatron
oscillation is excited (13,14), causing the vertical angular spread and beam size to increase.
SURF I operated in a betatron
mode and relied upon the laminated design to reduce electrical losses due to eddy currents.
machine was brought from Russia by JME Engineering and given to Walsgrave for development.