The Choson government did not consider reception at the open port or audience with the monarch in the capital as automatic royal bestowals.
Like King Sejo's earlier manufacture of a Seal of Execution made from jade, a material chosen for Chinese imperial seals, King Songjong removed the military post bestowals to Jurchens and Japanese symbolically and procedurally from an ordering of foreign relations centered in Ming China.
22) Rather, it is my proposition that to think about "sovereignty"--a construct which is always a bestowal and as such is deeply imperfect but critical for these moments in Indigenous/Settler-State relations--is to think very seriously about needs and, basically, involves a calculus ethnography of what you need to know and what I refuse to write in.
But the complex of factors--Canada's bestowal of a right to reserves to determine membership after 100 years of living under Indian Act rules for recognition; Canada's reinstatement of the women on a federal registry--led, in part, to the development of a blood quantum code in Kahnawake, a code that was in defiance of Canadian norms for political recognition but appeared to be "objective" and gender-neutral.
The case was a minor one economically, and since neither the US industry nor the Hungarian respondents participated through counsel, the important and novel question posed by the 1997 bestowals
was not briefed by any party.
Inter-personal relationships, particularly sexual-marital relations including promised bestowals
, actual marriages and lover relationships are seen to be crucial to individual-group dynamics and major motives for disputes, including violence, among the Tiwi.
Xu made use of sources such as imperial edicts and orders, appointments and bestowals
, memoranda, biographies, epitaphs, collectanea, and personal letters.