This factor must be considered when comparing landings data with beche-de-mer production.
Beche-de-mer is exported from the producer countries to a central market such as Hong Kong or Singapore, and then is re-exported to Chinese consumers.
Beche-de-mer fisheries have a long history, as the Chinese have sought sea cucumbers for a thousand years or more in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines (Conand, 1986, 1989a, 1990).
The world beche-de-mer market is largely controlled by Chinese traders, and historical data from 1917 to 1986 were reviewed by Conand (1986, 1989a, 1990).
KEY WORDS: sea cucumber, Australostichopus mollis, fisheries, aquaculture, sea ranching, beche-de-mer
By then, many Torres Strait Islanders were working in the new maritime industries, their employment regulated under the various Pearl Shell and Beche-de-mer Fisheries Acts and the Native Labourers Protection Act of 1884.
There are 21 vessels, or 'company boats' as they are called, worked by the natives, in the pearl-shell and beche-de-mer industry, on the communal system.
From 1915 company boats began to focus more on the trochus industry, but boats shifted between pearl-shell, trochus and beche-de-mer depending on price and seasonal conditions, even though each product required quite different collecting and processing techniques.
He made the call at the recently concluded Pacific Beche-de-mer
and the Future of Coastal Fisheries Meeting held in Nadi.
Shortly before the war, the Queensland government, citing increases in the unemployment rate among Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal people, had obtained the support of the Prime Minister in abolishing all indentured Papuan labour in the pearl-shell, trochus and beche-de-mer fisheries (Schug 1997).
During the 1950s, Torres Strait Islanders were hailed as `the foundation of Queensland's pearling, trochus-shell and beche-de-mer industry' (Cilento 1959, 227).
Torres was the first European to visit the strait, in 1606, but, apart from the passage of some vessels and the work of several naval surveys, there was no permanent contact with the outside world until the second half of the nineteenth century when commercial fishers began exploiting beche-de-mer, trochus shell and pearl-shell.
The beche-de-mer, trochus and pearl-shell fisheries continued to be the backbone of the region's economy, but the workforce became more ethnically mixed and included Europeans, Japanese, Malayans, Pacific Islanders and Torres Strait Islanders, as well as Aborigines and Papuans.
During the 1950s and 1960s, the beche-de-mer, pearl and trochus shell fisheries virtually collapsed and local unemployment rose.
4 minion, of sea cucumber or beche-de-mer
commodities in 1988 and lands about 7,100t (Table 1).