On January 19, the Service proposed to list the Graham's beardtongue
as a threatened species.
In 1992 biologist Emily Baxter of James Madison University, studying wildflowers, ferns, and shrubs native to Shenandoah's Big Meadows, found that 35 plant species, including formerly abundant beardtongue
, boneset, fireweed, Angelica, Monarda, and sumac, had disappeared since 1975.
Species with <2% cover included, in order of dominance, spike trisetum (Trisetum spicatum), granite mousetail (Ivesia muirii), alpine willow (Salix arctica), frosted buckwheat (Eriogonum incanum), Sierra beardtongue
(Penstemon heterodoxus), heath wood rush (Luzula orestera), pussypaws (Calyptridium umbellatum), rockcress (Arabis platysperma), glaucus willowherb (Epilobium glabenimum), and little elephant heads (Pedicularis attolens).
We chose to study the Ohio native Foxglove Beardtongue
(Penstemon digitalis), and the introduced weed Dame's Rocket (Hesperis matronalis).