BOSS uses similar methods to measure baryon
acoustic oscillations (BAO), relics of sound waves from the early universe that present themselves as ripples visible in the distribution of galaxies, as a standard ruler.
Sakharov, in 1967 derived three conditions (baryon
violation, C and CP violation and out of thermal equilibrium) for a theory to satisfy in order to explain the baryon
asymmetry of the Universe.
Source of CP Violation for the Baryon
Asymmetry of the Universe.
In the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), unlike in the SM, the conservation of lepton number (L) and of baryon
number (B) is not automatic: the superpotential can contain renormalizable and gauge invariant L- and B-violating terms.
The key to the measurements is the imprint of sound waves--called baryon
acoustic oscillations--frozen into the radiation from 300,000 years after the Big Bang, about 13.
Over 150 papers highlight developments since the previous conference in 2002, among them the possible discovery of the pentaquark, developments in the four-body sector, new measurements showing interesting phenomena in baryon
resonances, computational techniques and precision detectors revealing fine details of physics, and the ability to compare calculations based on effective field theory and experimental results.
This is an incredibly exciting time to be working in cosmology, and we're all privileged to be part of the Baryon
Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)," the BBC quoted Prof Will Percival from the University of Portsmouth as saying at the UK National Astronomy Meeting in Manchester.
Observation of the Omega-sub-b baryon
, an exotic and much heavier cousin of the proton
Neutron-antineutron oscillations Is baryon
The proton is stable, because it's the lightest baryon
and the baryon
number is conserved.
5 million such galaxies gathered by the Baryon
Oscillation Spectrographic Survey, or BOSS, the largest component of the still-ongoing SDSS III.
Such decays are known to be mediated by strange baryon
resonances that decay to a final state comprising a proton and a kaon.
Physicists had long sought quarkbased matter that isn't a three-quark baryon
(like protons) or a two-quark meson, although the strong force could seemingly shape larger particles.
For example, a baryon
is predominantly formed from three quarks, and a meson is mainly composed of a quark and an antiquark in the models of Sakata, or Gell-Mann and Ne'eman on hadrons (), such as those shown in Fig.
Reporting their findings in 2005, Professor Cole and his colleagues showed that baryon
acoustic oscillations - sound waves that originated a few seconds after the Big Bang - could be used to measure distances in the Universe and the rate at which it is expanding.