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With the use of existing experimental data of the aging human aorta, the researchers were also able to find how the stiffening of the aorta with age causes the baroreceptors to misinform the central nervous system about blood pressure.
The present study, performed in primarilynormotensive rats, had two objectives: 1) to test the effects of sequential exposure, first to a LNa diet for 7 days and then to a HNa diet for 21 days, in rats with and without partial arterial baroreceptor impairment (to simulate the prehypertensive SS baroreceptor systemic phenotype) on SSi and on MAP after 21 days on a HNa diet, and 2) to study the roles of plasma NO bioavailability (pNOB), renal medullary superoxide anion production, and renal mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in such responses.
The proposed mechanisms behind the reductions in resting blood pressure with isometric hand grip training include alterations to the autonomic nervous system, endothelial function, oxidative stress, arterial compliance, and/or baroreceptor (stretch receptors in the vessel) sensitivity.
This arterial/brain/heart message system is called the baroreceptor response.
For example, in advanced age, the prevalence of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease increases and is manifested by changes that alter arterial compliance, vasoconstriction, autonomic function, sensitivity of catecholamines, and baroreceptor sensitivity (Smith, Austen, & Souba, 2001).
Aldosterone also activates the sympathetic nervous system, inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system, causes endothelial and baroreceptor dysfunction, and produces myocyte and vascular fibrosis.
The direct effects of these two drugs in slowing the heart are counteracted by the baroreceptor reflex, which increases heart rate and force of contraction, thus counterbalancing the effects of verapamil and diltiazem on the heart.
The ongoing trends in the respective market include Medtronic's HTN-3 pivotal study, development of novel renal denervation devices, devising of baroreceptor stimulation technology, ongoing clinical trials and techniques to address the existing limitations of the current technologies.
Nucleus tractus solitarii: Afferent and efferent neuronal connections in relation to the baroreceptor reflex arc.
Dobutamine is known to increase HR and BP artificially and also to blunt baroreceptor function (van de Borne et al.
The cardiac stroke volume that's increased during rest causes the vagal tone to increase by creating myocardial tension and baroreceptor stimulation (1, 8).
The putative mediating pathways involved are sympathetic activation, arterial chemoreceptor response, baroreceptor sensitivity and vasoactive mediators affecting endothelial function (59).
In surveys of hospitalized patients with hyponatremia, the stimulus for vasopressin secretion is low effective circulating volume via the baroreceptor in about two-thirds of patients.
The increase in heart rate is a combination of baroreceptor reflex activation and direct chronotropic effects on the myocardium (166).
BARORECEPTOR RESPONSE--The body's response to pressure sensitive nerves in the carotid artery that help regulate heart rate and arterial pressure; the response grows weaker with age.