No cases of complete obstruction of the SVC and the azygos vein
(type IV) were detected.
We also learned that in at least 30% of cases of oesophageal atresia the distal fistula is located above the azygos vein
sup] The frequency of accidental azygos vein
cannulation during a central venous access through IJV is 0.
Caption: Figure 1: Enhanced axial chest CT image (a) and oblique axial thin-slab maximum-intensity-projection (MIP) images (b, c) inferior to (a) show thrombosed and stenosed SVC (arrowhead) and distended and occluded azygos vein
(black block arrow).
5%) was in the form of right anterio-lateral thoracotomy through 4th intercostal space, extrapleural approach, division of azygos vein
, ligation and division of tracheo-oesophageal fistula (Fistula closed by three interrupted proline sutures), adequate mobilization of proximal blind pouch and primary oesophageal anastomosis.
The lymphadenpathy was more subtle than the sarcoid case above, but can be confidently called because of the adjacent azygos vein
and aortic enhancement.
In case of persistent left IVC, possible routes for the return of blood to the right atrium are via the azygos vein
to the SVC, via the hemiazygos vein to persistent left SVC or via the left brachiocephalic vein to right SVC (4).
A dilated azygos vein
drained into the superior vena cava (SVC).
The right IVC, once receiving the left and right renal veins, ran upwards as a single vein continuing superiorly as the azygos vein
within the retrocrural space.
It contains the heart enclosed in the pericardium, the ascending aorta, the lower half of the superior vena cava with the azygos vein
opening into it, the bifurcation of the trachea and the two bronchi, the pulmonary artery dividing into its two branches, the right and left pulmonary veins, the phrenic nerves, and some bronchial lymph glands.
is formed by the union of the ascending lumbar veins with the right subcostal veins at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, ascending in the posterior mediastinum, and arching over the right main bronchus at the root of the right lung to join the superior venacave.
Other sites for malpositioning mentioned in literature include the azygos vein
, left superior intercostal vein and the thymic vein (8).
They drain either into inferior vena cava, lumbar azygos vein
or ascending lumbar vein.