In contextual fear conditioning, experimental subjects are placed in an emotionally neutral context (such as a room) and presented an aversive
stimulus (such as an electrical shock).
The main dependent variable was tolerance both in the cold pressor and aversive
According to Potter, LaTour, Braun-LaTour, and Reichert (2006), this is a dual-motivation system theory that suggests emotions arise as either appetitive (approach) or aversive
It starts by asking Question 1: Are the aversive
sensory attributes of the API known?
Face Matching Task (FMT) [2, 13] is one of the most commonly used paradigms to study affective processing; different versions have been adapted, which consider several conditions, but all of them allow the implicit and explicit assessment of affective processing, including aversive
emotions, such as fear or anger (see Materials and Methods for the task description).
racism theory is based on the idea that today racism
Although research has demonstrated the potential utility of the use of aversive
stimuli in changing smoking behavior, such studies have not been carried out in Nigeria even though smoking has become a national health issue.
The key to successful counter-conditioning, as this process is called, is to always keep the dog below threshold; you want him a little aware of and worried about the aversive
stimulus, but not quaking in fear or barking and lunging.
autism), it is difficult for the educator or service provider to understand what is an appropriate aversive
with an appropriate pain threshold (Matson & Sevin, 1994).
Recent data suggest that serotonin can inhibit aversive
responding in humans, but this remains underspecified.
As it currently manifests itself, unconscious bias/racism has developed into what some have referred to as a subtle and perhaps a more insidious form of racism called aversive
racism (Dovidio, 2001; Dovidio & Gaertner, 2000, 2004; Gaertner & Dovidio, 1986; Pearson, Gaertner, & Dovidio, 2009).
According to Shoenberger, those who are highly appetitive tend to engage with social media extensively, while who are on aversive
side choose safer and more predictable media experiences.
Anyone who has watched the police drama NCIS: Navel Criminal Investigative Service on the CBS network has witnessed aversive
intervention (Bellisario, 2010).
1999; Vaughan & Tarrier, 1992); high drop-out rates (Schnurr, 2001); the observation that some patients fail to enroll because they are intimidated or may find the treatment too aversive
(Rothbaum et al.
Researcher Dr Geraldine Wright said: "We have shown that the emotional responses of bees to an aversive
event are more similar to those of humans than previously thought.