If the spread of democracy is unlikely to cast autocracies
into the dustbin of history along with slavery and imperialism, as McFaul hopes, assisting gradual political liberalization abroad could ameliorate the lot of peoples in developing countries.
Democracies channel funds to pro-democracy groups, or they demand that autocracies
change their behavior.
5) But taxonomy has outpaced explanation and the question remains: Are electoral autocracies
less stable than their exclusionary peers?
The Chinese and Russians and the leaders of other autocracies
cannot welcome this kind of progress.
strategic ends through partnerships with Arab autocracies
yields mixed results, at best, in the short term and is cancerous in the longer run.
It aims primarily to provide a defensive barrier against dependence on autocracies
from the Old World.
1) In autocracies
, officials generally have significant control over economic activity and are unconstrained by democratic institutions, such as political competition (elections), the rule of law, an independent judiciary, and a free press.
As at the end of the 20th century only four (Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and the Ukraine) are categorised by Roeder as democracies; six (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are categorised as autocracies
, which are governed exclusively by a small group; three (Armenia, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan) are categorised as oligarchies, where the selectorate is a broader group of bureaucrats; and two (Estonia and Latvia) are categorised as exclusive republics, where the selectorate comprises a wide section of society, but not all persons of voting age.
Unlike dictatorships or autocracies
, such regimes do not tolerate rivals to themselves, whether free unions, associations, the press, political parties or religion.
At last, democracy is penetrating into corporate America, one of the last hotbeds of authoritarianism in our society," said Bossidy, who sited the loosening of corporate autocracies
as a major factor in the recent rise in U.
Conventional wisdom is that democracy creates wealth, but this is hard to detect in the data because many autocracies
such as Singapore and Chile have done quite well.
After all, Turkey does not boast the natural gas holdings that support other autocracies
in regions not so far-off from these lands.
He then moves to Medieval Italy, following the connections between politics and public finance through the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, explaining how public finance required political freedom and also gave an advantage over autocracies
In 2001, a decade after the Soviet Union's collapse, three clear regime types had emerged--democracies (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), autocracies
(Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and semi-autocratic, semi-democratic regimes in the reminder of the post-Soviet countries.
Generally, Western autocracies
that did arise never succeeded to the degree of eastern despots in controlling the lives of their subjects.