We also anticipated that presentation via the auditory modality alone would be hardest to identify.
Analyses revealed that, in line with our hypothesis based on previous studies of adolescents and adults, identification of emotions through the auditory modality alone was significantly lower than through the visual and the AV modalities.
However, the pattern for the auditory modality was different: In this modality, the identifications of all the emotions were very poor and similar to each other.
Accordingly, in the comparison among the modalities, happiness, sadness, and fear were identified significantly better through the visual and AV modalities than through the auditory modality.
Inaccurate Response Happiness Sadness Anger Target n % N % n % Emotion Auditory Modality Happiness - - 31 24.
As can be seen in the table, in the auditory modality, the most frequent emotion inaccurately given for happiness was anger (48.
All participants in the current investigation were least efficient at identifying emotions via the auditory modality alone, compared to the other two modalities, but no significant differences were found between the combined modality and the visual modality.