The parameters of the atmospheric state
p, T and e are determined by the refraction fields subroutine on computational surfaces of the model using fields of forecasted parameters [theta], [pi] and q.
As far as the fitting of the atmospheric state is concerned, the resulting vertical profiles are compared in center and right panels of Fig.
We also show how this kind of measurement can be used for the remote sensing of the atmospheric state by retrieving both the vertical profiles of water vapor and temperature and the cloud microphysics.
NWP, or computer-based modeling of the atmosphere, involves representing the current atmospheric state
on a three-dimensional grid, applying the physical and dynamical equations that govern how the atmosphere will change in time at each grid point, and repeating this process to generate a forecast of desired length.
Measurements from such technology provide an almost instantaneous picture of the atmospheric state
, can be taken at most any location, and are not altered by clouds, light rain, and airborne aerosols.
Should improving accuracy of radiative transfer be an insurmountable problem, though, it may still be possible to discern model error when considering different types of highly accurate data that obey different remote sounding physics, including in situ data types, but are sensitive to the same atmospheric state variables.
To start, a best estimate of the true atmospheric state at a previous time ("original analysis") serves as an initial state for the integration of the fluid dynamical equations of motion.
As a result, incremental 4D-Var updates of the atmospheric state are constricted by fixed (but uncertain) conditions at the surface, even if the available observations indicate that these conditions have changed.
In contrast, previous ECMWF reanalyses have assimilated the majority of observations used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) in an attempt to produce the best possible estimate of the atmospheric state at any given time.