Following the direct association theory
of McCracken (1989), consumers' perception rating about the Brand user's imagery (reflected through brands' ability to successfully manifest the image of users), Image of the company employees, and Image of the celebrity endorser were collected.
Adapting differential association theory to jihadi radicalization, this article assesses thereafter, with respect to the detainees, one of the key differential association factors, namely their previous exposure to salafi-jihadi attitudes and beliefs through contact with radicalizing agents.
The authors are particularly grateful to professor Emilio Lamo de Espinosa, chairman of Elcano Royal Institute, for his insightful advice on differential association theory.
From this we can conclude, the history of arrest in family is not very high in juvenile prisoners and which does not support Sutherland's differential association theory
As mentioned earlier, deviant peer association is central to differential association theory, whereas peer attachment is a key component of control theory.
The observed effect is consistent with both differential association theory and findings from studies of other ethnic populations.
Some authors argued for an "interactional perspective," which combines aspects of both Differential Association Theory and Social Control Theory.
6, 9, 10] For example, both Differential Association Theory and Social Control Theory predict that a high level of delinquency will be associated with a delinquent peer group.
Contemporary studies of Sutherland's differential association theory argue that people learn about crime predominantly or exclusively through exposure to attitudes and motives that legitimize such behaviours.
In a recent test of differential association theory, Warr and Stafford (1991; see also Warr 1993) exemplify the first interpretation described above; that is, one that concentrates exclusively on attitudes.
This conclusion is supported by Stitt and Giacopassi's (1992) finding that in 28 volumes of Criminology (1963-91), only 11 of 215 empirically-based articles (just over 5 per cent) focus on differential association theory.
1986) have helped to rescue differential association theory from potential empirical oblivion.
In this respect, Adler's research is in the company of Hirschi's control theory, rather than Braithwaite's reintegrative shaming or Sutherland's differential association theory
Differential association theory derives from social learning theory and assumes that there is no natural impulse toward delinquency, but rather delinquent behavior must be learned and reinforced through the same process as conforming behavior (Thornberry, 1987).
Differential association theory avoids the hegemonic assumption of cultural universality with respect to aspirations and values, but in focusing on the process of how differences develop, it falls short of explaining why certain groups develop deviant or delinquent belief systems.