But as emperors and the aristocracies
interacted, the aristocrats did not simply capitulate to the fait accompli of Christianization by imperial fiat.
Other converts, however, were from the landed ethnic aristocracies
Many explanations come to mind, including the historical and regional differences among Italy's aristocracies
, the urban base of politics, conflicts between Church and State that overshadowed many other divisions, and Italy's relatively slow industrialization.
The return to power of hereditary aristocracies
, the expansion of seigniorial rights and feudal privileges, and the passing of urban rule into the hands of overlords and tyrants was an ubiquitous trend that confirmed Aristotle's theory about the growth and decline of city-states.
By shifting the classical focus on what civility means for the free and noble barbarian warrior to its implications for the peasantry, the Irish tracts eliminate the moral ambiguities characteristic of the Roman narratives; for this population, ruthlessly exploited by both tribal and feudal aristocracies
, civility promises to bestow rather than destroy liberty.
These new European aristocracies
, these merchant magnates, made systematic use of some key new developments of the core culture: extensive concessions of "rights and liberties" to their commoners.