In 2008, a highly fatal outbreak of HF in Johannesburg was attributed to a previously unknown arenavirus
, dubbed the Lujo virus (i.
In addition to the recognized arenavirus
hosts, other Texas rodent genera (Onychomys, Baiomys, Peromyscus, Dipodomys, and Chaetodipus) have tested positive for arenavirus
antibodies (Milazzo et al.
The antiviral drug ribavirin has been successfully used in the treatment of other arenavirus
is believed to have killed a 14-year-old Oakland girl, who died in April; and a 30-year-old Orange County woman and a 52-year-old Riverside County woman in the past 14 months.
For primary arenavirus
screening, lung sections of all animals were homogenized, and RNA was extracted and reversely transcribed by using random hexamer primers.
Sites were defined as an area possessing suitable habitat for maintaining a high density of woodrats (a high density was required for aspects of the arenavirus
Serum samples were tested for IgG against WWAV, Amapan virus (AMAV), an arenavirus
that is antigenically closely related to the Tacaribe serocomplex viruses known to cause hemorrhagic fever (4), and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), the prototypical arenavirus
and member of the Lassa-lymphocytic choriomeningitis serocomplex, by using an ELISA.
Further tests are needed to find out whether this current strain is an undiscovered member of the arenavirus
and what its distribution is.
and hantavirus infections are likely severely underreported because symptoms may resemble those of many other febrile infections (2).
The study entitled, "Discovery and implication of a novel arenavirus
in a cluster of fatal transplant associated disease," describes how identification of this virus might enable improvements in screening that will enhance the safety of transplantation.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), an Old World arenavirus
, family Arenaviridae, is a zoonotic virus maintained in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and can be carried by pet and laboratory rodents (1-7); human exposure occurs through aerosolized excreta or by direct rodent contact.
Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus
isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia.
Negative samples were subsequently tested for Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes 6 virus (9), flavivirus (10), arenavirus
(2), adenovirus (11), and phlebovirus (12).
Analyses of serologic data suggested that the 3 antibody-positive deer mice were infected with an arenavirus
that is antigenically more closely related to the South American hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses
than to other North American Tacaribe serocomplex viruses.
As one of only two Biosafety Level 4 labs on the continent, NICD's contribution is most visible during haemorrhagic fever outbreaks (including confirmation of the recent arenavirus
outbreak), but it has also made important contributions in less exotic outbreaks in the region.