2S abdominal apodemes
small, narrow, Gredzinskiya not exceeding 3rd sternite Dworakowska 28'.
However, the pattern of the pygidial apodemes
and construction of the fulcrum are different.
The first lever arm (L1) is a measure of the distance between the claw's pivot (P) and the insertion point of the closer muscle apodeme
The specific name refers to the row of spines on the sperm sac of the ejaculatory apodeme
(from Latin echinatus = spiny).
6B, 7B); ectophallic apodeme
short and robust, weakly sclerotized (Figs.
Mid and hind femora brown, with 2 yellow rings; male with ejaculatory apodeme
very small, much smaller than epandrium .
Hypandrium small, membranous, joined laterally to each clasper; phallosome apodeme
long, slender, distally divided in two arms, each ending in an elliptic membranous area (Fig.
4 (ap4) not meeting medially; paragenital seta (pr) antero-medial to genital disc (gdi3); gnathosomal distal fork not separated from basal joint.
The genitalic characters are as follows: Male subgenital plate long and pointed; female subgenital plate with posterior margin setose, dorsal valve of ovipositor shorter than lateral apodeme
, spermatheca with apical diverticulum well developed, pre-apical diverticulum sac like.
Genitalia of male with small dorsal apodeme
, median genital sac not preserved in material examined; genitalia of female with large gonosac which is covered with scattered pores.
I (ap l) 20 (12-20) long, V- shaped continuing with sternum I (st l).
1); aedeagus with subquadrate broad socle in ventral view, stem slender, elongate and strongly curved upward, slightly expanded laterally on both sides below gonopore, which is oval and apical; dorsal apodeme
prominent; phragma bearing a pair of longitudinal membranous leaf-like processes, more sclerotized and bordered with microteeth on posterior margin and small and marginal microsetae along anterior margin (Fig.
The most conspicuous parts on the anterior side of the organ are the lateral apodemes
and the lateral rods, connected to the dorsal apodeme
and the ejaculatory canal atrium (Fig.
A variety of receptors include muscle receptor organs, which measure muscle stretch (Bush, 1977); chordotonal organs, which are articular (joint rotation) receptors measuring stretch around joints; and apodeme
receptors and cuticular stress receptors, which record muscular tension via tendons and cuticle respectively (Wales et al.
Hypandrium tubular, with two flap-like structures on either side, hypandrial apodeme
reduced, forming a sharp ridge.