The larvae habitat features, like its permanent or temporary nature, artificial or natural, basic type, substrate type and vegetation, anopheline
and culicine larval presence and density, were noted.
israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines
in Western Kenya.
In Pakistan about 24 Anopheline
species are reported among which Anophele sculicifacies and Anopheles Stephensi are confirmed vectors for malarial transmission .
Divergence estimates and speciation: Using two fossil calibration points (both at 34 Mya) we estimated mtDNA divergence times within a sympatric group of Anophelines
Most of the literature on anopheline
mosquitoes has focused on the determination of the presence or absence of adult forms of malaria vectors in the different American countries (Rodriguez & Loyola 1989; Zimmerman 1992; Manguin et al.
They were assayed against DDT, deltamethrin, fenitrothion and propoxur using the standard WHO bioassay technique for testing the susceptibility of adult anopheline
Rao TR(1984): In: The Anopheline
of India (Revised Edition), Malaria Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 1-518.
1998) noticed that localities altered by human activites showed a greater diversity of anopheline
species, probably caused by agricultural activities that provide additional nutrients to the area.
Description of Chagasia rozeboomi, an anopheline
from Ceara, Brasil.
Pupae of the neartic Anopheline
mosquitoes North of Mexico.
It has been reported that the numbers collected outdoors and indoors cannot be compared directly because of the fact that adult anophelines
could be collected from houses or cattle sheds with less effort, as the adult tend to become concentrated in indoor resting shelters whereas the effort required is disproportionately more in outdoor shelters as the adults are scattered over wide areas (11,16).
Their topics include odor coding and neural connections, mechanisms of orientation to host odors and other cues in host finding by female mosquitoes, field and semi-field studies of host-seeking behavior in Afrotropical anophelines
, the chemical ecology of sandflies, understanding and exploiting olfaction for the surveillance and control of Culicoides biting midges, the chemical ecology of tick-host interactions, and a case study of the practical application of olfactory cues for monitoring and controlling Aedes aegypti in Brazil.
Equivalent studies on vector population genetics of other Anophelines
and Culicines, by means of allozyme frequency comparisons, should help provide the background for more appropriate antivectorial measures to be implemented against each population of medically important mosquitoes in turn.
Anopheles subpictus is a house-frequenting mosquito among the anophelines
reported from various parts of the world.
The relative densities of females between culicines and anophelines
were 94% and 6% respectively.