Cells were observed in interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase
Number of anaphases
is changed differently in different concentrations and treatment.
The presence of irregular chromosome behavior in metaphases and anaphases
in the Euphorbiaceae family was observed by NASSAR (2000) in a cytogenetic and evolutive study of Manihot esculenta Crantz, where there was precocious chromosome migration in metaphase I and II, and laggard chromosomes in anaphase
I and II.
The genotoxic effects that were observed in the present study included, multipolar anaphase
, fragments, and deformed nucleus.
This abnormality, by clumping the chromosomes, impairs the correct segregation at anaphases
, giving rise to bridges that are broken at telophases.
All the chromosomes migrate synchronously at anaphase
I, and at metaphase II nine chromosomes are seen (Fig.
It induced multipolar anaphases
and telophases and chromosome lagging.
Interestingly, some isolated chromosomes were observed as well, which were not related to the "achromatic spindle" and produced abnormal anaphases
with laggard chromosomes and chromosomal bridges.
Additionally, the X chromosome was positively heteropycnotic in most gonadal metaphases and spermatogonial anaphases
The predominant abnormalities consisted of chromosomes/ nuclei in stickiness, bridges at anaphase
and telophase, C-metaphases, unoriented chromosomes at metaphases, and chromosomes/chromatids or even lost fragments at anaphases
(Table 4 and 5, Figure 4).
As abnormal mitoses, triple-polar and tetra-polar metaphases, metaphases/anaphases
showing lagging chromosomes, and chromosomal bridges were considered in total 100 metaphases and 100 anaphases
, respectively per cell line.
Also, it was assessed the effect of flavoring doses by the number of micronucleated cells, colchicine metaphases, anaphase
and telophase bridges, gene amplifications, cells adhesions, nuclear buds and multipolar anaphases
We also evaluated the potential of cell concentrations to cause cellular aberrations, such as micronuclei, colchicine metaphases, telophase and anaphase
bridges, gene amplifications, cell adhesions, nuclear buds and multipolar anaphases