Ascertainment bias means that clinicians started screening HIV-positive people for anal abnormalities as reports of anal dysplasia
and cancer proliferated in the cART era, and this heightened ascertainment makes it look like more HIV-positive people have anal cancer in more recent years.
An alternative explanation is that because of the increase in screening programs for anal dysplasia
, anal cancers may be diagnosed more often than in the past.
Palefsky, a professor of medicine and the director of the Anal Dysplasia
Clinic at the UCSF Cancer Center.
HPV infection can result in diseases including internal and external genital warts and precancerous conditions, such as cervical and anal dysplasia
Stressgen's heat shock protein fusion product, HspE7, designed to invoke a potent immune response, is in clinical development for a broad range of HPV-related diseases including cervical and anal dysplasia
, genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP).
So did almost 1 in 5 women, including 2 of 5 (40%) with anal warts and 5 of 8 (62%) with anal dysplasia
, compared with 20 of 122 (16%) with no anal lesions.
HPV is associated with numerous pre-cancerous and cancerous diseases including cervical cancer, vulvar and anal cancer, head and neck cancer, and anal dysplasia