Florida child dies after contracting ameba from Costa Rica hot springs [cited 2014 Aug 22].
Sandford family speaks about losing son to deadly ameba [cited 2014 Aug 22].
6 die from brain-eating ameba
after swimming in lakes.
The portal of entry of the ameba may be a break in the skin or the respiratory tract by inhalation of wind-blown cysts, with subsequent spread to the CNS through the circulatory system (1).
PCR has been used to identify ameba DNA in brain tissue and CSF of persons suspected of having balamuthiasis (2) and in brain tissue of a patient with primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by N.
Interest in free-living amebas
has grown over the last decade with reports of their pathogenic potential (11,29) and the role of amebas
as reservoirs for L.
Although the typical morphologic traits of Mimivirus make its confusion with ameba
organelles unlikely (Figure), positive serum samples tested on noninfected intact amebas
suspended in PBS by using the same migration inhibition factor protocol did not show any reactivity.
Nasal swabs from all of them were negative for amebas, which confirms that fatal N.
Few clinicians and microbiologists in Italy are aware of the disease and the potential danger presented by other free-living, pathogenic species of amebas, such as Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia.
The diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis was confirmed histologically or by indirect immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections in all seven cases; in one case amebas also were isolated in culture from necrotic brain tissue at autopsy (4).
Furthermore, BAE is likely underdiagnosed because of unfamiliarity with appearance of amebas in tissue sections and nonspecific symptoms.
24,25,26) PCR is also used by referral and research laboratories to identify free-living ameba
to the species level.
Pipet tips (10), vacuum containers (10), plastic 15-mL tubes (10), syringes (10), glass slides (20), and tubes containing medium (10) were submitted for direct examination and culture for ameba
to ensure that they were not contaminated.