in domestic water and for the patient's possible exposure.
as opportunistic agents of human disease.
8-11) Thomas and Ashbolt determined a mean free-living ameba detection rate of 45% in a 2011 meta-analysis of 26 reports of the presence of free-living amebae
in drinking water treatment systems in 18 different countries.
Composition and occurrence of testate amebae
in the Curua-Una Resorvoir (State of Para, Brasil).
Case definitions for non-notifiable infections caused by free-living amebae
(Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba spp.
However, there is no information on the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amebae
in the region.
Sarcomastigophora consist of the amebae
Known since classical times, the infection was linked to amebae
by Fedor Aleksandrovich Losch in 1875.
are usually found in warm, freshwater lakes, pools, or ponds in warm, moist climates such as that of Florida.
hominis was originally considered a yeast, but now is grouped with the amebae
Other infectious agents associated with encephalitis, including West Nile virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae
, have been reported in clusters of solid organ transplant recipients (16).
microbes including bacteria, fungi, amebae
, and viruses) or from noninfectious causes (e.
Initially, several search engines were queried for references using the following key MESH words: free-living amebae
, free-living amebic infections, primary amebic meningoencephalitis, PAM, Naegleria species, Naegleria fowleri, and climate change, specifically the impact of climate change on parasites and infectious diseases of aquatic environments.
After finding large numbers of ameba in the patient's feces, Losch named the organism Amoeba coli and documented its pathogenicity by injecting amebae
from his patient into a dog's rectum.
Free-living, amphizoic amebae
of genera Naegleria, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia can cause central nervous system infection in humans.